Rules of Snooker

SECTION 1 EQUIPMENT

1 The Standard Table 3 Cue

2 Balls 4 Ancillary

SECTION 2 DEFINITIONS

1 Frame 12 Nominated Ball

2 Game 13 Free ball

3 Match 14 Forced off the table

4 Balls 15 Penalty points

5 Striker and Turn 16 Foul

6 Stroke 17 Snookered

7 Pot 18 Spot Occupied

8 Break 19 Push Stroke

9 In-hand 20 Jump Shot

10 Ball in Play 21 Miss

11 Ball On

SECTION 3 THE GAME

1 Description 10 Penalties

2 Position of Balls 11 Fouls

3 Mode of Play 12 Snookered After a Foul

4 End of Frame, 13 Play Again

Game or Match 14 Foul and a Miss

5 Playing from In-hand 15 Ball Moved by Other than

6 Hitting Two Balls Striker

Simultaneously 16 Stalemate

7 Spotting Colours 17 Four-handed Snooker

8 Touching Ball 18 Use of Ancillary Equipment

9 Ball on Edge of Pocket 19 Interpretation

SECTION 4 THE PLAYERS

1 Conduct 4 Absence

2 Penalty 5 Conceding

3 Non-striker

SECTION 5 THE OFFICIALS

1 The Referee 3 The Recorder

2 The Marker 4 Assistance by Officials

SECTION 1

Measurements in parenthesis state the metric equivalent to the nearest millimetre

1. The Standard Table

(a) Dimensions

The playing area within the cushion faces shall measure 11 ft 8½in x 5ft 10in

(3569mm x 1778mm) with a tolerance on both dimensions of +/- ½ in (+/- 13mm).

(b) Height

The height of the table from the floor to the top of the cushion rail shall be from

2ft 9½in to 2ft 10½in (851mm to 876mm).

(c) Pocket Openings

(i) There shall be pockets at the corners (two at the Spot end known as the

top pockets and two at the Baulk end known as the bottom pockets) and

one each at the middle of the longer sides (known as the centre pockets);

(ii) the pocket openings shall conform to the templates owned and authorised

by The World Professional Billiards and Snooker Association (WPBSA

Ltd).

(d) Baulk-line and Baulk

A straight line drawn 29in (737mm) from the face of the bottom cushion and

parallel to it is called the Baulk-line, and that line and the intervening space is

termed the Baulk.

(e) The “D”

The “D” is a semi-circle described in Baulk with its centre at the middle of the

Baulk-line and with a radius of 11½in (292mm).

(f) Spots

Four spots are marked on the centre longitudinal line of the table:

(i) the Spot (known as the Black Spot), 12¾in (324mm) from a point

perpendicularly below the face of the top cushion;

(ii) the Centre Spot (known as the Blue Spot), located midway between the

faces of the top and bottom cushions;

Section 1 – Snooker

(iii) the Pyramid Spot (known as the Pink Spot), located midway between the

Centre Spot and the face of the top cushion;

(iv) the Middle of the Baulk-line (known as the Brown Spot).

Two other spots used are located at the corners of the “D”. Viewed from the Baulk

end, the one on the right is known as the Yellow Spot and the one on the left as the

Green Spot.

2. Balls

(a) The balls shall be of an approved composition and shall each have a

diameter of 52.5mm with a tolerance of +/- 0.05mm;

(b) they shall be of equal weight and the difference between the heaviest ball

and the lightest ball should be no more than 3g; and

(c) a ball or set of balls may be changed by agreement between the players

or on a decision by the referee.

3. Cue

A cue shall be not less than 3ft (914mm) in length and shall show no substantial

departure from the traditional and generally accepted shape and form.

4. Ancillary

Various cue rests, long cues (called butts and half-butts according to length),

extensions and adaptors may be used by players faced with difficult positions for

cueing. These may form part of the equipment normally found at the table but

also include equipment introduced by either player or the referee (see also

Section 3 Rule 18). All extensions, adaptors and other devices to aid cueing must

be of a design approved by the WPBSA Ltd.

SECTION 2

Standard definitions used throughout these Rules are hereinafter italicised.

1. Frame

A frame of snooker comprises the period of the play from the start, see Section 3

Rule 3(c), with all the balls set as described in Section 3 Rule 2, each player

playing in turn until the frame is completed by:

(a) concession by any player during his turn;

(b) claim by the striker when; Black is the only object ball remaining on the

table, aggregate points are not relevant, and there is a difference of

more than seven points between the scores in his favour;

(c) the final pot or foul when; Black is the only object ball remaining on the

table (see Section 3 Rule 4); or

(d) being awarded by the referee under Section 3 Rule 14(d) (ii) or Section 4

Rule 2.

2. Game

A game is an agreed or stipulated number of frames.

3. Match

A match is an agreed or stipulated number of games.

4. Balls

(a) The White ball is the cue-ball.

(b) The 15 Reds and the 6 colours are the object balls.

5. Striker and Turn

The person about to play or in play is the striker and remains so until the final

stroke, or foul, of his turn is complete and the referee is satisfied that he has

finally left the table. If a non-striker comes to the table, out of turn, he shall be

considered as the striker for any foul he may commit before leaving the table.

When the referee is satisfied that the above conditions have been met, the

incoming striker‟s turn begins. His turn and his right to play another stroke ends

when:

(a) he fails to score from a stroke; or

(b) he commits a foul; or

(c) he requests the opponent to play again after his opponent has committed a

foul.

6. Stroke

(a) A stroke is made when the striker strikes the cue-ball with the tip of the

cue, except whilst addressing the cue-ball (known as feathering)

(b) A stroke is fair when no infringement of Rule is made.

(c) A stroke is not completed until:

(i) all balls have come to rest;

(ii) the striker has stood up, in readiness for a succeeding stroke, or

leaving the table;

(iii) any equipment being used by the striker has been removed from a

hazardous position; and

(iv) the referee has called any score relevant to the stroke.

(d) A stroke may be made directly or indirectly, thus:

(i) a stroke is direct when the cue-ball strikes an object ball without first

striking a cushion;

(ii) a stroke is indirect when the cue-ball strikes one or more cushions

before striking an object ball.

(e) Following the final stroke of the opponent‟s turn, if an incoming player

plays a stroke/strikes the cue-ball before the balls have come to rest, he

shall be penalised as if he were the striker, and his visit to the table shall

end.

7. Pot

A pot is when an object ball, after contact with another ball and without any

infringement of these Rules, enters a pocket. Causing a ball to be potted is

known as potting.

8. Break

A break is a number of pots in successive strokes made in any one turn by a

player during a frame.

9. In-hand

(a) The cue-ball is in-hand:

(i) before the start of each frame;

(ii) when it has entered a pocket;

(iii) when it has been forced off the table; or

(iv) when the black is spotted in the event of tied scores.

(b) The cue-ball remains in-hand until:

(i) it is played fairly from in-hand; or

(ii) a foul is committed whilst the ball is on the table.

(c) The striker is said to be in-hand when the cue-ball is in-hand as above.

Section 2 – Snooker

10. Ball in play

(a) The cue-ball is in play when it is not in-hand.

(b) Object balls are in play from the start of the frame until pocketed or forced

off the table.

(c) Colours become in play again when re-spotted.

11. Ball On

Any ball, which may be lawfully struck by the first impact of the cue-ball, or any

ball which may not be so struck but which may be potted, is said to be on.

12. Nominated Ball

(a) A nominated ball is the object ball which the striker declares, or indicates

to the satisfaction of the referee, he undertakes to hit with the first impact

of the cue-ball.

(b) If requested by the referee, the striker must declare which ball he is on.

13. Free Ball

A free ball is a ball, other than the ball on, which the striker nominates as the

ball on when snookered after a foul (see Section 3 Rule 12).

14. Forced off the table

A ball is forced off the table if it comes to rest other than on the bed of the

table or in a pocket, or if it is picked up by the striker, or intentionally moved by

hand whilst it is in play except as provided for in Section 3 Rule 14(g).

15. Penalty Points

Penalty points are awarded to an opponent after any foul.

16. Foul

A foul is any infringement of these Rules.

17. Snookered

The cue-ball is said to be snookered when a direct stroke in a straight line to

every ball on is wholly or partially obstructed by a ball or balls not on. If one or

more balls on can be struck at both extreme edges free of obstruction by any

ball not on, the cue-ball is not snookered.

(a) If in-hand, the cue-ball is snookered if it is obstructed as described above

from all possible positions on or within the lines of the “D”.

(b) If the cue-ball is so obstructed from hitting a ball on by more than one ball

not on:

(i) the ball nearest to the cue-ball is considered to be the effective

snookering ball; and

(ii) should more than one obstructing ball be equidistant from the cueball, all such balls will be considered to be effective snookering balls.

(c) When Red is the ball on, if the cue-ball is obstructed from hitting different

Reds by different balls not on, there is no effective snookering ball.

(d) The striker is said to be snookered when the cue-ball is snookered as

above.

(e) The cue-ball cannot be snookered by a cushion. If the curved face of a

cushion obstructs the cue-ball and is closer to the cue-ball than any

obstructing ball not on, the cue-ball is not snookered.

18. Spot Occupied

A spot is said to be occupied if a ball cannot be placed on it without that ball

touching another ball.

19. Push Stroke

A push stroke is made when the tip of the cue remains in contact with the cueball:

(a) after the cue-ball has commenced its forward motion; or

(b) as the cue-ball makes contact with an object ball except, where the cueball and an object ball are almost touching, it shall not be deemed a push

stroke if the cue-ball hits a very fine edge of the object ball.

20. Jump Shot

A jump shot is made when the cue-ball passes over any part of an object ball,

whether touching it in the process or not, except:

(a) when the cue-ball first strikes one object ball and then jumps over another

ball;

(b) when the cue-ball jumps and strikes an object ball, but does not land on

the far side of that ball;

(c) when, after striking an object ball lawfully, the cue-ball jumps over that

ball after hitting a cushion or another ball.

21. Miss

A miss is when the cue-ball fails to first contact a ball on and the referee

considers that the striker has not made a good enough attempt to hit a ball on

SECTION 3

1. Description

Snooker may be played by two or more players, either independently or as

sides. The game can be summarised as follows:

(a) Each player uses the same White cue-ball and there are twenty-one

object balls – fifteen Reds each valued 1, and six colours: Yellow valued

2, Green 3, Brown 4, Blue 5, Pink 6 and Black 7.

(b) Scoring strokes in a player‟s turn are made by potting Reds and colours

alternately until all the Reds are off the table and then the colours in the

ascending order of their value.

(c) Points awarded for scoring strokes are added to the score of the striker.

(d) Penalty points from fouls are added to the opponent‟s score.

(e) A tactic employed at any time during a frame is to leave the cue-ball

behind a ball not on such that it is snookered for the next player. If a

player or side is more points behind than are available from the balls left

on the table, then the laying of snookers in the hope of gaining points

from fouls becomes most important.

(f) The winner of a frame is the player or side:

(i) making the highest score;

(ii) to whom the frame is conceded; or

(iii) to whom it is awarded under Section 3 Rule 14(d)(ii) or

Section 4 Rule 2.

(g) The winner of a game is the player or side:

(i) winning most, or the required, number of frames;

(ii) making the greatest total where aggregate points are relevant; or

(iii) to whom the game is awarded under Section 4 Rule 2.

(h) The winner of a match is the player or side winning most games or, where

aggregate points are relevant, with the greatest total.

2. Position of Balls

(a) At the start of each frame the cue-ball is in-hand and the object balls are

positioned on the table as follows:

(i) the Reds in the form of a tightly-packed equilateral triangle, with the

Red at the apex standing on the centre line of the table, above the

Pyramid Spot such that it will be as close to the Pink as possible

without touching it, and the base of the triangle nearest to, and

parallel with, the top cushion;

(ii) the six colours on the spots designated in Section 1, Rule 1(f).

(b) If an error in setting up the table is made, Section 3 Rule 7(c) shall apply,

the frame starting as in Section 3 Rule 3(c).

Section 3 – Snooker

(c) After a frame has started, a ball in play may only be cleaned by the

referee upon reasonable request by the striker and:

(i) the position of the ball, if not spotted, shall be marked by a suitable

device prior to the ball being lifted for cleaning;

(ii) the device used to mark the position of a ball being cleaned shall be

regarded as and acquire the value of the ball until such time as the

ball has been cleaned and replaced. If any player other than the

striker should touch or disturb the device, the Referee shall call

PENALTY and the offender shall be penalised as if he were the

striker, without affecting the order of play. The referee shall return

the device or ball being cleaned to its position, if necessary, to his

satisfaction, even if it was picked up.

3. Mode of Play

The players shall determine the order of play by lot or in any mutually agreed

manner, the winner having the choice of which player plays first.

(a) The order of play thus determined must remain unaltered throughout the

frame, except a player may be asked by the next player to play again

after any foul.

(b) The player or side to strike first must alternate for each frame during a

game.

(c) The first player plays from in-hand, the frame commencing when the cueball has been placed on the table and contacted by the tip of the cue

either:

(i) as a stroke is made; or

(ii) while addressing the cue-ball.

(d) If a frame is started by the wrong player or side:

(i) it shall be restarted correctly, without penalty, if only one stroke has

been played and no foul has been committed since; or

(ii) it shall continue in the normal way if another stroke has been played,

or if a foul is committed after the completion of the first stroke, with

the correct order of starting being resumed in the following frame

such that one player or side will have started in three consecutive

frames; or

(iii) it shall, in the event of a stalemate being declared (See Section 3

Rule 16) be re-started by the correct side.

(e) For a stroke to be fair, none of the infringements described below in Rule

10 (Penalties) must occur.

(f) For the first stroke of each turn, until all Reds are off the table, Red or a

free ball nominated as a Red is the ball on, and the value of each Red

and any free ball nominated as a Red, potted in the same stroke, is

scored.

(g) (i) If a Red, or a free ball nominated as a Red, is potted, the same

player plays the next stroke and the next ball on is a colour of the

striker‟s choice which, if potted, is scored and the colour is then

spotted;

(ii) The break is continued by potting Reds and colours alternately until

all the Reds are off the table and, where applicable, a colour has

been played at following the potting of the last Red;

(iii) The colours then become on in the ascending order of their value as

per Section 3 Rule 1(a) and when next potted remain off the table,

except as provided for in Section 3 Rule 4, and the striker plays the

next stroke at the next colour on;

(iv) In the event that the striker, in a break, plays before the referee has

completed spotting a colour while all other balls are at rest, the value

of the colour shall not be scored and Section 3 Rule 10(a) (i) or

Section 3 Rule 10(b) (ii) shall apply as appropriate.

(h) Reds are not usually replaced on the table once pocketed or forced off

the table regardless of the fact that a player may thus benefit from a foul.

However, exceptions are provided for in Section 3; Rules 2(c) (ii), Rule 9,

Rule 14(b) and (f), 15(a) and 18(c).

(i) If the striker fails to pot a ball, he must leave the table without undue

delay. In the event that he should commit any foul before, or while leaving

the table, he will be penalised as provided for in Section 3 Rule 10. The

next stroke is then played from where the cue-ball comes to rest, or from

in-hand if the cue-ball is off the table, except when the cue-ball is

replaced in accordance with Section 3 Rule 14(e).

(j) If any ball enters a pocket and rebounds onto the bed of the table, it does

not count as having been pocketed. The striker has no redress if this

occurs because a pocket is overloaded.

4. End of Frame, Game or Match

(a) When Black is the only object ball remaining on the table, the first score

or foul ends the frame excepting only if the following conditions both

apply:

(i) the scores are then equal; and

(ii) aggregate scores are not relevant.

(b) When both conditions in (a) above apply:

(i) the Black is spotted;

(ii) the players draw lots for choice of playing next;

(iii) the next player plays from in-hand; and

(iv) the next score or foul ends the frame.

Section 3 – Snooker

(c) When aggregate scores determine the winner of a game or match, and

the aggregate scores are equal at the end of the last frame, the players in

that frame shall follow the procedure for a re-spotted Black set out in (b)

above.

5. Playing from In-hand

To play from in-hand, the cue-ball must be struck from a position on or within the

lines of the “D”, but it may be played in any direction.

(a) The referee will state, if asked, whether the cue-ball is properly placed

(that is, not outside the lines of the “D”).

(b) If the tip of the cue should touch the cue-ball while positioning it, and the

referee is satisfied that the striker was not attempting to play a stroke,

then the cue-ball is not in play.

6. Hitting Two Balls Simultaneously

Two balls, other than two Reds or a free ball and a ball on, must not be struck

simultaneously by the first impact of the cue-ball.

7. Spotting Colours

Any colour pocketed or forced off the table shall be spotted before the next

stroke is made, until finally potted under Section 3 Rule 3 (g) (iii).

(a) A player shall not be held responsible for any mistake by the referee in

failing to spot correctly any ball.

(b) If a colour is spotted in error after being potted in ascending order as per

Section 3 Rule 3 (g) (iii), it shall be removed from the table without

penalty when the error is discovered and play shall continue from the

resulting position.

(c) If a stroke is made with a ball or balls not correctly spotted, they will be

considered to be correctly spotted for subsequent strokes. Any colour

incorrectly missing from the table will be spotted:

(i) without penalty when discovered if missing due to previous

oversight;

(ii) subject to penalty if the striker played before the referee was able to

effect the spotting.

(d) If a colour has to be spotted and its own spot is occupied, it shall be

placed on the highest value spot available.

(e) If there is more than one colour to be spotted and their own spots are

occupied, the highest value ball shall take precedence in order of

spotting.

(f) If all spots are occupied, the colour shall be placed as near its own spot

as possible, between that spot and the nearest part of the top cushion.

(g) In the case of Pink and Black, if all spots are occupied and there is no

available space between the relevant spot and the nearest part of the top

cushion, the colour shall be placed as near to its own spot as possible on

the centre line of the table below the spot.

(h) In all cases, the colour when spotted must not be touching another ball.

(i) A colour, to be properly spotted, must be placed by hand on the spot

designated in these Rules.

8. Touching Ball

(a) If at the completion of a stroke the cue-ball is touching a ball or balls on,

or that could be on, the referee shall state TOUCHING BALL and indicate

which ball or balls on the cue-ball is touching. If the cue-ball is touching

one or more colours after a Red (or a free ball nominated as a Red) has

been potted, the referee shall also ask the striker to DECLARE which

colour he is on.

(b) When a touching ball has been called, the striker must play the cue-ball

away from that ball without moving it or it is a push stroke.

(c) Providing the striker does not cause any touching object ball to move,

there shall be no penalty if:

(i) the ball is on;

(ii) the ball could be on and the striker declares he is on it; or

(iii) the ball could be on and the striker declares, and first hits, another

ball that could be on.

(d) If the cue-ball comes to rest touching or nearly touching a ball that is not

on, the referee, if asked whether it is touching, will answer YES or NO.

The striker must play away without disturbing it as above but must first hit

a ball that is on.

(e) When the cue-ball is touching both a ball on and a ball not on, the referee

shall only indicate the ball on as touching. If the striker should ask the

referee whether the cue-ball is also touching the ball not on, he is entitled

to be told.

(f) If the referee is satisfied that any movement of a touching ball at the

moment of striking was not caused by the striker, he will not call a foul.

(g) If a stationary object ball, not touching the cue-ball when examined by the

referee, is later seen to be in contact with the cue-ball before a stroke has

been made, the balls shall be repositioned by the referee to his

satisfaction. This also applies to a touching ball which later, when

examined by the referee is not touching; the balls shall be repositioned by

the referee to his satisfaction.

9. Ball on Edge of Pocket

When a ball falls into a pocket without being hit by another ball, and:

(a) Being no part of any stroke in progress, it shall be replaced and any

points previously scored shall count.

(b) If it would have been hit by any ball involved in a stroke:

(i) with no infringement of these Rules (including cases where an

infringement would have occurred but for the ball falling into a

pocket), all balls will be replaced and the same stroke played again,

or a different stroke may be played at his discretion, by the same

striker;

(ii) if a foul is committed, the striker incurs the penalty prescribed in

Section 3 Rule 10, all balls will be replaced and the next player has

the usual options after a foul.

(c) If a ball balances momentarily on the edge of a pocket and then falls in; it

shall count as in the pocket and not be replaced.

10. Penalties.

The following acts are fouls and incur a penalty of four points unless a higher one is

indicated in paragraphs (a) to (d) below. Penalties are:

(a) value of the ball on by:

(i) striking before the referee has completed the spotting of a colour

taken as a free ball;

(ii) striking the cue-ball more than once during a stroke;

(iii) striking when both feet are off the floor;

(iv) playing out of turn, or playing a stroke before his opponent‟s turn has

ended contrary to Section 2 Rule 6 (e);

(v) playing improperly from in-hand, including at the opening stroke;

(vi) causing the cue-ball to miss all object balls;

(vii) causing the cue-ball to enter a pocket;

(viii) causing the cue-ball to be snookered behind a free ball, except as

provided for in Section 3 Rule 12(b) (ii);

(ix) playing a jump shot;

(x) playing with a non-standard cue; or

(xi) conferring with a partner contrary to Section 3 Rule 17(e);

(b) value of the ball on or ball concerned, whichever is higher, by:

(i) striking when any ball is not at rest;

(ii) striking before the referee has completed the spotting of a colour that

is not a free ball;

(iii) causing a ball not on to enter a pocket;

Section 3 – Snooker

(iv) causing the cue-ball to first hit a ball not on;

(v) making a push stroke;

(vi) touching a ball or ball marker in play; or

(vii) causing a ball to be forced off the table;

(c) value of the ball on or higher value of the two balls concerned by causing

the cue-ball to first hit simultaneously two balls, other than two Reds

(when Red is the ball on) or a free ball and a ball on;

(d) seven points if the striker:

(i) uses a ball off the table for any purpose;

(ii) uses any object to measure gaps or distance;

(iii) touches any ball during consultation as described in Section 3, Rule

14(g)

(iv) plays at Reds, or a free ball followed by a Red, in successive

strokes;

(v) uses any ball other than White as the cue-ball for any stroke after the

frame has started;

(vi) fails to declare which ball he is on when snookered or when

requested to do so by the referee; or

(vii) after potting a Red (or free ball nominated as a Red), commits a foul

before a colour has been nominated.

11. Fouls

If a foul is committed, the referee shall immediately state FOUL.

(a) If the striker has not made a stroke, his turn ends immediately and the

referee shall announce the penalty.

(b) If a stroke has been made, the referee will wait until completion of the

stroke before announcing the penalty.

(c) If a foul is neither awarded by the referee, nor successfully claimed by the

non-striker before the next stroke is made, it is condoned.

(d) Any colour not correctly spotted shall remain where positioned except that

if off the table it shall be correctly spotted.

(e) All points scored in a break before a foul is awarded are allowed but the

striker shall not score any points for any ball pocketed in a stroke called

foul.

(f) The next stroke is played from where the cue-ball comes to rest or, if the

cue-ball is off the table, from in-hand.

(g) If more than one foul is committed in the same stroke, the highest value

penalty shall be incurred.

(h) The player who committed the foul:

(i) incurs the penalty prescribed in Rule 10 (Penalties); and

(ii) has to play the next stroke if requested by the next player.

(i) If a striker, when snookered or hampered in any way, fouls any ball

including the cueball while preparing to play a stroke, if requested by his

opponent to play again, the opponent shall have the choice as to whether the

ball on shall be the same as it was prior to the infringement, namely:

(i) Any Red, where Red was the ball on;

(ii) The colour on where all the Reds were off the table; or either

(iii) A colour of the striker‟s choice, where the ball on was a colour after a

Red had been potted; or

(iv) The option of playing the next Red or Yellow when there are no Reds

remaining.

Any ball(s) moved shall be replaced to their original position(s) by the referee if

requested by the non-offender.

12. Snookered After a Foul

After a foul, if the cue-ball is snookered (see Section 2, Rule 17), the referee

shall state FREE BALL.

(a) If the player next in turn elects to play the next stroke:

(i) he may nominate any ball as the ball on, but a free ball cannot be the

ball on;

(ii) any nominated ball shall be regarded as, and acquire the value of,

the ball on except that, if potted, it shall then be spotted.

(b) It is a foul if the cue-ball should:

(i) fail to hit the nominated ball first, or first simultaneously with the ball

on; or

(ii) be snookered on all Reds, or the ball on, by the free ball thus

nominated, except when the Pink and Black are the only object balls

remaining on the table.

(c) If the free ball is potted, it is spotted and the value of the ball on is scored.

(d) If a ball on is potted, after the cue-ball struck the nominated ball first, or

simultaneously with a ball on, the ball on is scored and remains off the

table.

(e) If both the nominated ball and a ball on are potted, only the ball on is

scored unless it was a Red, when each ball potted is scored. The free ball

is then spotted and the ball on remains off the table.

(f) If the offender is asked to play again, the free ball call becomes void.

13. Play Again

Once a player has requested an opponent to play again after a foul or

requested the replacement of ball(s) after a FOUL AND A MISS, such request

cannot be withdrawn. The offender, having been asked to play again, is

entitled to:

(a) change his mind as to:

(i) which stroke he will play; and

(ii) which ball on he will attempt to hit;

(b) score points for any ball or balls he may pot.

14. Foul and a miss

(a) The striker shall, to the best of his ability, endeavour to hit the ball on or a

ball that could be on after a Red has been potted. If the referee considers

the Rule infringed, he shall call FOUL AND A MISS unless:

(i) any player needed penalty points before, or as a result of, the stroke

being played;

(ii) before or after the stroke, the points available on the table are equal

to the points difference excluding the value of the re-spotted black;

and the referee is satisfied that the miss was not intentional.

(iii) a situation exists where it is impossible to hit the ball on.

In the latter case it must be assumed the striker is attempting to hit the

ball on provided that he plays, directly or indirectly, at the ball on with

sufficient strength, in the referee‟s opinion, to have reached the ball on

but for the obstructing ball or balls.

(b) After a FOUL AND A MISS has been called, the next player may request

the offender to play again from the position left, or at his discretion, from

the original position, with all balls being replaced, in which latter case the

ball on shall be the same as it was prior to the last stroke made, namely:

(i) Any Red, where Red was the ball on;

(ii) the colour on, where all Reds were off the table; or

(iii) a colour of the striker’s choice, where the ball on was a colour after a

Red had been potted.

(c) If the striker, in making a stroke, fails to first hit a ball on when there is a

clear path in a straight line from the cue-ball to any part of any ball that is

or could be on, the referee shall always call FOUL AND A MISS unless as

described under paragraph (a)(i) and (a)(ii).

(d) After a miss has been called under paragraph (c) above when there was

a clear path in a straight line from the cue-ball to a ball that was on or

could have been on, such that central, full ball, contact was available (in

the case of Reds, this to be taken as a full diameter of any Red that is not

obstructed by a colour), then:

(i) a further failure to first hit a ball on in making a stroke from the

original position shall be called as a FOUL AND A MISS regardless

of the difference in scores;

(ii) if asked to play again from the original position, the offender shall be

warned by the referee that a third failure will result in the frame being

awarded to his opponent; and

(iii) if asked to play from the position left, the FOUL AND A MISS

situation starts again.

(e) After the cue-ball has been replaced under this Rule, and the striker fouls

any ball, including the cue-ball while preparing to play a stroke, a miss will

not be called if a stroke has not been played. In this case the appropriate

penalty will be imposed. The next player may then elect to play himself or

ask the offender to play again from the position left or the original

position. If being asked to play again, the ball on shall be the same as

prior to the last stroke made, namely:

(i) any Red, where Red was the ball on;

(ii) the colour on, where all Reds were off the table; or

(iii) a colour of the striker’s choice, where the ball on was a colour after a

Red had been potted;

If the above situation arises during a sequence of miss calls as described

under paragraph (d), any warning concerning the possible awarding of

the frame to his opponent shall remain in effect.

(f) When any ball is being replaced after a miss, both the offender and the

next player will be consulted as to its position, after which the referee‟s

decision shall be final.

(g) During such consultation, if either player should touch any ball in play, he

shall be penalised as if he were the striker, without affecting the order of

play. The ball touched shall be replaced by the referee, to his satisfaction,

even if it was picked up, Section 3. 10 (d) (iii).

15. Ball Moved by Other than Striker

If a ball, stationary or moving, is disturbed other than by the striker, it shall be

re-positioned by the referee to the place he judges the ball was, or would have

finished, without penalty.

(a) This Rule shall include cases where another occurrence or person,

causes the striker to move a ball, but will not apply in cases where a ball

moves due to any defect in the table surface, except in the case where a

spotted ball moves before the next stroke has been made.

(b) No player shall be penalised for any disturbance of balls by the referee

16. Stalemate

If the referee thinks a position of stalemate exists, or is being approached, he

shall offer the players the immediate option of re-starting the frame. If any

player objects, the referee shall allow play to continue with the proviso that the

situation must change within a stated period, usually after three more strokes

to each side but at the referee‟s discretion. If the situation remains basically

unchanged after the stated period has expired, the referee shall nullify all

scores and re-set all balls as for the start of a frame. The same player shall

again make the opening stroke, subject to Section 3 Rule 3(d) (iii), with the

same established order of play being maintained.

17. Four-handed Snooker

(a) In a four-handed game each side shall open alternate frames and the

order of play shall be determined at the start of each frame and, when so

determined, must be maintained throughout that frame.

(b) Players may change the order of play at the start of each new frame.

(c) If a foul is committed and a request to play again is made, the player who

committed the foul plays the next stroke and the order of play is

unchanged. If the foul was called for playing out of turn, the offender‟s

partner will lose a turn, whether or not the offender is asked to play again.

(d) When a frame ends in a tie Section 3 Rule 4 applies. If a re-spotted Black

is necessary the pair who play the first stroke have the choice of which

player will make that stroke. The order of play must then continue as in

the frame.

(e) Partners may confer during a frame but not whilst one is the striker and

has approached the table until the break has ended with a non-scoring

stroke or foul.

18. Use of Ancillary Equipment

It is the responsibility of the striker to both place and remove any equipment he

may use at the table.

(a) The striker is responsible for all items including, but not limited to, rests

and extensions that he brings to the table, whether owned by him or

borrowed (except from the referee), and he will be penalised for any fouls

made by him when using this equipment.

(b) Equipment normally found at the table which has been provided by

another party including the referee is not the responsibility of the striker. If

this equipment should prove to be faulty and thereby cause the striker to

touch a ball or balls, no foul will be called.

(c) The referee will, if necessary, reposition any balls in accordance with

Section 3 Rule 15 above and the striker, if in a break, will be allowed to

continue without penalty.

19. Interpretation

(a) Throughout these Rules and Definitions, words implying the masculine

gender shall equally apply to and include the female gender.

(b) Circumstances may necessitate adjustment in how Rules are applied for

persons with disabilities. In particular and for example:

(i) Section 3 Rule 10 (a) (iii) cannot be applied to players in

wheelchairs; and

(ii) a player, upon request to the referee, shall be told the colour of a ball

if he is unable to differentiate between colours as, for example, red

and green.

(c) When there is no referee, such as in a social game, the opposing player

or side will be regarded as such for the purpose of these Rules.

SECTION 4

1. Conduct

(a) In the event of:

(i) a Player taking an abnormal amount of time over a stroke or the

selection of a stroke; or

(ii) any conduct by a Player which in the opinion of the referee is wilfully

or persistently unfair; or

(iii) any other conduct by a Player which otherwise amounts to

ungentlemanly conduct; or

(iv) refusing to continue a frame;

the referee shall either:

(v) warn the Player that in the event of any such further conduct the

frame will be awarded to his opponent; or

(vi) award the frame to his opponent; or

(vii) in the event that the conduct is sufficiently serious, award the game

to his opponent.

(b) If a referee has warned the Player under (v) above, in the event of any

further conduct as referred to above, the referee must either:

(i) award the frame to his opponent; or

(ii) in the event that the further conduct is sufficiently serious, award the

game to his opponent.

(c) If a referee has awarded a frame to a Player‟s opponent pursuant to the

above provisions, in the event of any further conduct as referred to above

by the Player concerned, the referee must award the game to the Player‟s

opponent.

(d) Any decision by a referee to award a frame and/or the game to a Player‟s

opponent shall be final and shall not be subject to any appeal.

2. Penalty

(a) If a frame is forfeited under this Section, the offender shall:

(i) lose the frame; and

(ii) forfeit all points scored and the non-offender shall receive a number

of points equivalent to the value of the balls remaining on the table,

with each Red counting as eight points and any colour incorrectly off

the table being counted as if spotted.

(b) If a game is forfeited under this Section, the offender shall:

(i) lose the frame in progress as in (a); and

(ii) additionally lose the required number of un-played frames to

complete the game where frames are relevant; or

(iii) additionally lose the remaining frames, each valued at 147 points,

where aggregate points apply.

3. Non-striker

The non-striker shall, when the striker is playing, avoid standing or moving in the

line of sight of the striker. He shall sit or stand at a reasonable distance from the

table and avoid making any movement or action that may interrupt the

concentration of the striker.

4. Absence

In the case of his absence from the room, the non-striker may appoint a deputy

to watch his interest and claim a foul if necessary. Such appointment must be

made known to the referee prior to departure.

5. Conceding

(a) A player may only concede when he is the striker. The opponent has the

right to accept or refuse the concession, which becomes null and void if

the opponent chooses to play on.

(b) When aggregate scores apply and a frame is conceded, the value of any

balls remaining on the table is added to the score of the other side. In

such case, Reds shall count as eight points each and any colour

incorrectly off the table shall be counted as if spotted.

(c) A player shall not concede a frame in any match unless snookers are

required. Any breach of this rule shall be regarded as ungentlemanly

conduct or misconduct by the player concerned.

SECTION 5

1. The Referee

(a) The referee shall:

(i) be the sole judge of fair and unfair play;

(ii) be free to make a decision in the interests of fair play for any situation

not covered adequately by these Rules;

(iii) be responsible for the proper conduct of the game under these Rules;

(iv) intervene if he sees any infringement of these Rules;

(v) tell a player the colour of a ball if requested; and

(vi) clean any ball upon reasonable request by a player.

(b) The referee shall not:

(i) answer any question not authorised in these Rules;

(ii) give any indication that a player is about to make a foul

stroke;

(iii) give any advice or opinion on points affecting play; nor

(iv) answer any question regarding the difference in scores.

(c) If the referee has failed to notice any incident, he may at his discretion take

the evidence of the marker or other officials or spectators best placed for the

observation or may view a camera/video recording of the incident to assist

his decision.

2. The Marker

The marker shall keep the score on the scoreboard and assist the referee in

carrying out his duties. He shall also act as recorder if necessary.

3. The Recorder

The recorder shall maintain a record of each stroke played, showing fouls where

appropriate and how many points are scored by each player or side as required.

He shall also make note of break totals.

4. Assistance by Officials

(a) At the striker‟s request, the referee or marker shall move and hold in

position any lighting apparatus that interferes with the action of the striker in

making a stroke.

(b) It is permissible for the referee or marker to give necessary assistance to

players with disabilities according to their circumstances